Too often, military and law enforcement authorities have found themselves constrained by inadequate weaponry. An emerging category of ‘non-lethal weapons’ carries promise for resolving this dilemma, proffering new capabilities for disabling opponents without inflicting death or permanent injury. This array of much more sophisticated technologies is being developed, and could emerge for use by soldiers and police in the near future. These augmented capabilities carry both immense promise and grave risks: they expand the power of law enforcement and military units, enabling them to accomplish assigned missions with greater finesse and reduced casualties. But they may also be misused – increasing maligned applications and inspiring leaders to over-rely upon a myth of ‘bloodless combat’. This book explores the emerging world of non-lethal weapons by examining a series of case studies – recent real-world scenarios from five confrontations around the world where the availability of a modern arsenal might have made a difference.